Timeline of U.S. Ibogaine Prohibition

Timeline of U.S. Ibogaine Prohibition

© 2019, Douglas Greene. Used by Permission.


1938- The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FDC) Act of 1938 is passed by Congress, revising the obsolete 1906 Pure Food and Drugs Act and giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics.

1965- The Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965 are passed by Congress and signed by the President, which modified the FDC Act. They allowed the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to designate certain “stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic” drugs as controlled, requiring licensing for sales and distribution. Possession for personal consumption or administration to animals was specifically allowed under this law. The law went into effect on or around Feb 1, 1966. After two years, President Lyndon Johnson issued an executive order creating the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD) by merging the Bureau of Narcotics, in the Treasury Department, which was responsible for the control of marijuana and narcotics such as heroin, with the Bureau of Drug Abuse Control (BDAC), formerly responsible for handling depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens.

Apr. 6-7, 1967- Abuse of Depressant and Stimulant Drugs Advisory Committee meeting to consider the regulation of ibogaine and its salts.

Apr. 14, 1967- Committee memo unanimously agreeing that ibogaine has a “potential for abuse” and should be regulated.

June 15, 1967- Briefing memorandum from Frederick M. Garfield, Acting Director, Bureau of Drug Abuse Control, to James L. Goddard, Commissioner of Food and Drugs, with proposed regulation of ibogaine, literature search and field report.

July 5, 1967- Proposal by Commissioner of Food and Drugs to list ibogaine and its salts as depressant or stimulant drugs within the meaning of Section 201(v) of the FDC Act because of its hallucinogenic effects (to be codified at 21 C.F.R. § 166.3(c)(3) (1968)).  32 Fed. Reg. 10,305 (July 13, 1967).

Sept. 15, 1967- Order promulgating listing of ibogaine.  32 Fed. Reg. 13,407 (Sept. 23, 1967).

Nov. 22, 1967- Order becomes effective. 32 Fed. Reg. 15,390 (Nov. 3, 1967)

Oct. 27, 1970- The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act (CDAPCA) of 1970, Pub. L. No. 91-513, 84 Stat. 1236 is enacted.  Ibogaine and its salts are listed in Schedule I under Title II of CDAPCA (the Controlled Substances Act) as having high potential for abuse, no accredited medical use, and a lack of accepted safety.  Ibogaine’s Schedule I status is codified at 21 U.S.C. § 812(c), Schedule I (c)(8).

Ibogaine is currently regulated at 21 C.F.R. § 1308.11(d)(20) (Apr. 1, 2007).


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